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LEADER 00000uam a2200409 a 4500 
003    CaSebORM 
005    20210422205647.5 
006    m     o  d         
007    cr cn          
008    200418s2018    xx      o           eng   
020    |z53863MIT59328 
024 8  53863MIT59328 
035    (CaSebORM)53863MIT59328 
041 0  eng 
100 1  Suarez, Fernando,|eauthor. 
245 14 The Hybrid Trap: |bWhy Most Efforts to Bridge Old and New 
       Technology Miss the Mark|h[O'Reilly electronic resource] /
       |cSuarez, Fernando. 
250    1st edition 
264  1 |bMIT Sloan Management Review,|c2018. 
300    1 online resource (6 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
347    text file 
365    |b6.50 
520    Technological transitions are challenging, particularly 
       for companies in mature industries. Incumbents are 
       frequently blindsided by new technologies, thereby missing
       opportunities to enter emerging markets early. While some 
       established companies become early adopters of new 
       technologies, the authors argue that they typically lack 
       the vision and the commitment to become leaders. Too often,
       they cling to the familiar, developing "hybrid" products 
       that combine elements of the old and the new. This puts 
       even the best incumbent companies in a weak position when 
       the market finally embraces the new technology, something 
       the authors call the "hybrid trap." This article takes a 
       close look at the auto industry's transition from internal
       combustion engines to electric vehicles (EVs) and compares
       it to precedents in other industries. Several incumbent 
       automakers, such as General Motors Co. and Honda Motor Co.
       Ltd., entered the EV market early, but they backed away 
       from these projects in favor of continued emphasis on 
       established engine technology. Gradually, most of them 
       focused on hybrid cars that combined old and new 
       technologies. This opened the door to new competitors, 
       notably Tesla Inc., which focused solely on the EV 
       technology. By mid-2017, nearly every old-line engine 
       producer was playing catch-up on EV technology, working to
       release new electric models in the next two to five years.
       Although it is too early to know if Tesla will be 
       successful in the long run, the Tesla example, in the 
       authors' view, points to a fundamental weakness in how 
       incumbents respond to industry transformations. In the 
       1960s, U.S. electronics companies responded to the 
       introduction of Japanese transistor radios by developing 
       products that blended transistor technology with 
       traditional vacuum tubes. In  the early 1990s, Kodak Ltd. 
       tried to sell a "film-based digital imaging" product, 
       which merged film photography and digital technology. And 
       a decade ago, BlackBerry Ltd. tried to respond to the 
       challenge of the iPhone by releasing a phone that had both
       a touchscreen display (like the iPhone) and a traditional 
       keyboard (like earlier BlackBerry phones).  The answer for
       incumbents, the authors write, isn't to walk away from 
       products based on the old technology and jump headlong 
       into the new. But they need to take precautions so that 
       the company's legacy operations don't hamper their ability
       to pursue new technology. New technologies can open 
       opportunities that extend well beyo... 
533    Electronic reproduction.|bBoston, MA :|cSafari,|nAvailable
       via World Wide Web.|d2018. 
538    Mode of access: World Wide Web. 
542    |fCopyright © 2018 MIT Sloan Management Review|g2018 
550    Made available through: Safari, an O’Reilly Media Company.
588 00 Online resource; Title from title page (viewed April 1, 
655  7 Electronic books.|2local 
700 1  Utterback, James,|eauthor. 
700 1  von Gruben, Paul,|eauthor. 
700 1  Kang, Hye,|eauthor. 
710 2  Safari, an O’Reilly Media Company. 
856 40 |zConnect to this resource online|uhttps://